Week 4 and week 5

week #04 20th – 26th of February

20th = working on blog

21st = presentation


Decide whether it’s for junior or intermediate athletes-its to better their performance for pre visualisation-use Pixate

Plan core research such as the design/Pixate for the user journey

App prototyping using Pixate

Need videoing done for animation reference

Non-cinematic Design-ie  wireframes format showing output and shape of each window

Finalize concept and preview Sketchfab


TEAM TALK: After presentation

the feedback we received from our presentation we felt really helped us focus in on what we need to be doing and looking into, I feel like we, as a team, needed that push and clarity to better understand what we should be aiming for.

because of this, I proposed that we as a team sit down, discuss and work out what we have done, what we still need to look into and what should be our next course of action.

thanks to the feedback we were given, we now knew exactly what our aim was and so did everybody else, marking that down we went over some of what we felt we would require, such as sports psychology and research into how the mind processes information, this sort of crosses into the realms of pedagogy, as that field of study is based off exactly that

because of the type of product, we are trying to create, I believe that the research we are doing will be primarily used to better understand the results and answers given to us by users during tests, as user testing is going to give us the most useful insight in our product and how it should function and what features it should have.


Pete had a good suggestion on testing if to see if our target audience, junior athletes to intermediate athletes (12 – 15 years), can empathize with professionals, and can they pre-visualise. now this suggestion brought up by Conann during our first presentation, this was because the age group we were aiming this product at was a lot younger and it was one of the reasons we changed our age group, so I don’t think this much of an issue anymore I still think this was a good suggestion and we should test for this.


we also decided that we should make sure our product is completely accessible, we were planning on using a piece of software for blender that would allow us to show 3d models with animation online in a 3d world space that would allow the user to rotate it 360 degrees in any direction, however, the use of this software would require our users to download a plugin. we want our product to be as accessible as possible, the requirement of a plugin hinders this.


we decided on few other smaller details such as the amount of animation we should aim for as well as the number of characters, and the exercises


we decide it would be best to aim our product towards intermediate athletes and aim to better their performance through pre-visualisation – using Emma’s field research we know when teaching a physical action everything needs to be broken down into parts, and before putting the full movement together, the smaller movements need to be practiced and rehearsed before trying to perform the full action.


Required research

we need to do research into sports psychology as well as research into how athletes processing information – (pedagogy).

Business model

Wireframe design


Field tests

We also need to do some field research, talking to young athletes and having them test our product, we would be testing to see if young athletes can empathize with professionals and to what degree can they pre-visualise, we’d also be testing the usability of our product


22nd = looking over Emma’s research

because I didn’t feel like I had gotten the full scope of the research that we had done during our team meeting yesterday I decided to everyone for their research individually, Emma had already posted everything on her blog so she simply directed me to it

in Emma’s research, she talks about how for the outcome of what we were aiming for, the teenage group is a better target audience. With more accessible to phones, and being more in-tuned with training at a higher intensity, it makes sense that this is a better-suited age group. Also, child body types are still all different, teen body’s going through puberty, are beginning to change and grow into the body type. (what body type).

This changes our research from child psychology, to teenage psychology, and physical education from key stage 2 to, key stage 3 and 4, which have different aims.

They outlined they wanted a business model pitch, outlining everything, like we were going for a business product

idea is clear

try to introduce empathy and story to make it more appealing.

It will be hard to combine learning and storytelling into one, achievable animation alongside a business plan, product design and an immense amount of research.

We really want to transport the user to the area and feel an emotional connection with the instructor and a possible character, but learn something from it.(Which is why data collection and user experience testing will be essential in this). It needs a responsive design with a responsive approach.


Emma’s teenage Pedagogy Research

Adolescent brain, learning strategies, and teaching tips:

This article outline’s things to know when teaching young adults, and how their memory takes in, processes, and retains information


some of the most notable pieces of information from this article are

“Thing to Know # 2: The addition of emotion can help students remember.”

“Thing to Know # 3: The brain is social & requires interaction in order to develop properly”

“Thing to Know # 5: We take in more information visually than through any other sense.”


Research into empathy

“Caring for agents and agents that care: Building Empathic Relations with Synthetic Agents”:

FOUND AT: http://publicationslist.org.s3.amazonaws.com/data/lynnehall/ref-17/confpaper2.pdf


Research into instructional/educational apps

“A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps”

This paper analyses the evaluation of instructional/educational apps, and the problems with the rubrics used to evaluate instructional/educational apps, creating its own rubric based on what was used to create the previous rubrics and solutions to the problems of those rubrics.

FOUND AT: http://www.jite.org/documents/Vol14/JITEV14ResearchP021-053Yuan0700.pdf

we plan to use the rubric developed in this paper to evaluate our own app


Contextual design

is a user-centered design process, using methods stemming systematic studies of people and cultures for gathering data relevant to the product via field studies, rationalizing workflows, and designing human-computer interfaces.

this usually means gathering data from customers in the field where people are living and using it create a final product. This design process is made from five steps: contextual inquiry, interpretation, data consolidation, visioning, storyboarding, user environment design, and prototyping

  • contextual inquiry = is a field data collection technique used to capture detailed information about how users of a product interact with the product in their normal work environment.


  • interpretation = Data from each interview is analyzed and key issues and insights are captured


  • data consolidation = Data from individual customer interviews are analyzed in order to reveal patterns and the structure across distinct interviews. Models of the same type can be consolidated together however they should not be generalized, detail must be maintained


  • visioning = In visioning, a cross-functional team comes together to create stories of how new product concepts, services, and technology can better support the user work practice, usually starting by reviewing the data to identify key issues and opportunities.


  • storyboarding = After visioning, the team develops the vision in storyboards, capturing scenarios of how people will work with the new system.


  • user environment design = The User Environment Design captures the floor plan of the new system. It shows each part of the system, how it supports the user’s work, exactly what function is available in that part, and how the user gets to and from other parts of the system


  • prototyping = Testing the design ideas with paper prototypes or even with more sophisticated interactive prototypes before the implementation phase helps the designers communicate with users about the new system and develop the design further.



Instructional design

this is another design process used to create “instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing.

The process consists broadly of determining condition of the learner, what a learner needs so they can be taught, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some “challenge or interference” to help the learning process. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. all forms of this design process are based off 5 phases:

  • analysis = refers to the gathering of information about one’s audience


  • design = using Information gathered along with theories and models of instructional design, is meant to explain how the learning will be acquired.


  • development = involves the creation of the activities that will be implemented. It is in this stage that the blueprints of the design phase are assembled.


  • implementation = refers to the implementation of content developed from the previous stage and testing its functionality and appropriateness for the intended audience


  • evaluation = Evaluating the results from the implementation to ensures the materials achieved the desired goals. data gained from this phase is used to alter and enhance the design.


Human-computer interaction

 “Because human-computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side.

  • On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant
  • On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. And, of course, engineering and design methods are relevant

Human–computer interaction studies the ways in which humans make, or do not make, use of computational artifacts, systems and infrastructures. In doing so, much of the research in the field seeks to improve human-computer interaction by improving the usability of computer interfaces

Much of the research in the field of human-computer interaction takes an interest in:

  • Methods for designing new/fun/simple computer interfaces, thereby optimizing a design for a desired property such as, e.g., learnability or efficiency of use
  • Methods for implementing interfaces
  • Methods for evaluating and comparing interfaces with respect to their usability and other desirable properties.
  • Methods for studying human computer use and its sociocultural implications more broadly.
  • Models and theories of human computer use as well as conceptual frameworks for the design of computer interfaces
  • views that reflect upon the merits and faults that are the fundamentals of computational design, computer use and HCI research practice


When evaluating or designing a user interface, it is important to keep in mind the following experimental design principles:

  • Early focus on user(s) and task(s): Establish how many users are needed to perform the task(s) and determine who the appropriate users should be; someone who has never used the interface, and will not use the interface in the future, who is most likely not a valid user. In addition, define the task(s) the users will be performing and how often the task(s) need to be performed.
  • Empirical measurement: Test the interface early on with real users who come in contact with the interface on a daily basis. Keep in mind that results may vary with the performance level of the user and may not be an accurate depiction of the typical human-computer interaction. Establish quantitative usability specifics such as: the number of users performing the task(s), the time to complete the task(s), and the number of errors made during the task(s).
  • Iterative design: After determining the users, tasks, and empirical measurements to include, perform the following iterative design steps:
  • Design the user interface
  • Test
  • Analyze results
  • Repeat

Repeat the iterative design process until a sensible, user-friendly interface is created.



  • Principles of user interface design: these are seven principles of user interface design that may be considered at any time during the design of a user interface in any order: tolerance, simplicity, visibility, affordance, consistency, structure and feedback.
  • User-centered design: user-centered design (UCD) is a modern, widely practiced design philosophy rooted in the idea that users must take center-stage in the design of any computer system. Users, designers and technical practitioners work together to articulate the wants, needs and limitations of the user and create a system that addresses these elements. Often, user-centered design projects are informed by ethnographic studies of the environments in which users will be interacting with the system. This practice is similar but not identical to participatory design, which emphasizes the possibility for end-users to contribute actively through shared design sessions and workshops.
  • Value sensitive design: Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is a method for building technology that account for the values of the people who use the technology directly, as well as those who the technology affects, either directly or indirectly. VSD uses an iterative design process that involves three types of investigations: conceptual, empirical and technical. Conceptual investigations aim at understanding and articulating the various stakeholders of the technology, as well as their values and any values conflicts that might arise for these stakeholders through the use of the technology. Empirical investigations are qualitative or quantitative design research studies used to inform the designers’ understanding of the users’ values, needs, and practices. Technical investigations can involve either analysis of how people use related technologies, or the design of systems to support values identified in the con


Display designs

Displays are human-made artifacts designed to support the perception of relevant system variables and to facilitate further processing of that information. Before a display is designed, the task that the display is intended to support must be defined (e.g. navigating, controlling, decision making, learning, entertaining, etc.). A user or operator must be able to process whatever information that a system generates and displays; therefore, the information must be displayed according to principles in a manner that will support perception, situation awareness, and understanding.

Thirteen principles of display design

Christopher Wickens et al. defined 13 principles of display design in their book An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering.[18]

These principles of human perception and information processing can be utilized to create an effective display design. A reduction in errors, a reduction in required training time, an increase in efficiency, and an increase in user satisfaction are a few of the many potential benefits that can be achieved through utilization of these principles.

Certain principles may not be applicable to different displays or situations

  • Perceptual principles
  1. Make displays legible (or audible).
  2. Avoid absolute judgment limits. Do not ask the user to determine the level of a variable on the basis of a single sensory variable (e.g. colour, size, loudness)
  3. Top-down processing. all users have expectations, those expectations are based on passed experiences with other apps, this will affect how they perceive and interpret your app
  4. Redundancy gain. If a signal is presented more than once, it is more likely that it will be understood correctly.
  5. Similarity causes confusion. Use distinguishable elements. Signals that appear to be similar will likely be confused.


  • Mental model principles
  1. The principle of pictorial realism. A display should look like the variable that it represents (e.g. high temperature on a thermometer shown as a higher vertical level).
  2. The principle of the moving part. Moving elements should move in a pattern and direction compatible with the user’s mental model of how it actually moves in the system


  • Principles based on attention
  1. Minimizing information access cost. When the user’s attention is diverted from one location to another to access necessary information, there is an associated cost in time or effort.
  2. Proximity compatibility principle. Divided attention between two information sources may be necessary for the completion of one task.
  3. The principle of multiple resources. A user can more easily process information across different resources.


  • Memory principles
  1. Replace memory with visual information: knowledge in the world. A user should not need to retain important information solely in working memory or retrieve it from long-term memory.
  2. The principle of predictive aiding. Proactive actions are usually more effective than reactive actions. A display should attempt to eliminate resource-demanding cognitive tasks and replace them with simpler perceptual tasks to reduce the use of the user’s mental resources.
  3. The principle of consistency. Old habits from other displays will easily transfer to support processing of new displays if they are designed consistently.

applying the 13 principles 

Learning styles

23rd – 2nd = UI/wireframe/prototype

23rd = started working on app prototype screen

24th = (late night so 25th included) research into color + graphics design and                       colour scheme testing


Wireframing 150?

  • When designing the wire frame, I tried to put in as much research as I could, using the Thirteen principles of display design I had learned from researching human-computer interaction, I applied each principle to our wire frame, making sure we ticked all the boxes


  • Using Emma’s pedagogy research and her experience from coaching we know everything needs to be broken down into parts, and before you can put the full movement together, the paper written by Dr. Gavin Breslin proves that information is better taken in, when broken down into segments, that’s why we plan to have our techniques broken down, either into the individual movements of each body part or into different stages


Colour research and colour scheme testing 150

  • A good colour scheme can be very important to product they can give you a great psychological advantage over your completion, many companies know this and are careful when choosing the colours for their banding, two big supermarket chains in America, Target and Walmart are perfect examples of this, Target use red because it’s pitching to people who can spend a bit more and do a bit of impulse shopping, while Walmart uses blue because its pitching to people on a budget.


I did a bit of experimenting, looking at and creating various different colour schemes, the more vibrant colours with higher saturations felt much more energetic but didn’t mix well and were often overpowering, turning down the saturation allowed the colours to mix better but they lost some of their energy


Eventually, after looking some examples and testing my colour schemes out by applying them some basic app screen, I found online, I settled on a combination made from reds, greens, and while. Red and green can be a very overpowering colour, which is why white is being used keep the colour separated for the majority, however, we can’t always keep them separated which is why we plan to use less saturated green and red in those situations, the higher saturated green and red will be used some sparingly


We choose to use red for both its psychological and physiological effects on the body, it seemed like the perfect colour for an app that focuses on physical activity. Green was also chosen for it psychological and physiological effects, it seems to be a very calming and soothing colour with positive effects to body and cells, it promotes health and nature.


We didn’t use blue because a lot of the effects it has counter the effects of red.


Design 150

Working on the colours lead me into working on display designs, using Pinterest, I looked through some examples of other apps, using them as inspiration to help me concept some interesting designs, I started off with a basic design, still somewhat testing the colour scheme, I then tried to get a bit more creative, although I was inspired by the pictures I found on Pinterest a lot of the designs came from my head, thinking back on user interfaces within the games that I had played in the past, the UI of the PlayStation 2 for example, or the UI of assassins creed games.

I tried making these screens look good because I believed that at this stage we should be trying to create a prototype of our app meaning we should be trying to create a more polished looking app screens.

I continued to work making prototype screens, this pretty much means I had to find appropriate images and paint in muscles over the top them as well as other little bits of information. This meant knowing anatomy and muscle structure.


Learn how to use ZBrush

With the prototype screens finished I moved on to sculpting the model, I had recently downloaded a copy of Zbrush, it’s pretty different from other sculpting/modelling programs so I needed to spend a little time learning how to use it, logging on to digital tutors, I found a course going over all the new functionality of the previous versions of Zbrush, this gives me an overview of what the program is capable of, and how I can use it


UV’ed model

Before I could start sculpting I need to go back into Maya and make a UV map for my base model, looking at the texture files of a triple-A game installed on my PC as an example, I tried laying the UV’s of my model out in a similar way, seeing as it was a texture from triple-A game, I believed that it was the best way to do so as it was way an established professional


23rd = started working on app prototype screen

24th = (late night so 25th included) research into color + graphics                                 design and color scheme testing

25th + 26th = weekend (home)

27th =

28th (last day of the month) =

1st of March = some evidence that I worked on app screens this day too

2nd = finish app screens

3rd – 4th = learn how to use ZBrush

5th – 6th = UV’ed model

weekend – went home


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